Reconstructive surgery is a surgical procedure to restore the functioning of the deformed limb or joint. The deformities may be congenital or acquired. Traumatic injury is the most common cause for deformities and may also be caused due to infections or fractures that do not heal properly.
Limb reconstruction or restoration procedures include joint fluid therapy, cartilage transplantation, and prosthetic replacement surgeries. Use of external fixators is more common where the fixators are attached to deformed limb or joint using screws and wires. Fixators are used to lengthen or shorten the limb, realigning the nonunion fractures, correct the deformity and replacement of the missing bone. Apart from these surgical procedures, bone stimulation techniques using electromagnetic or ultrasound devices such as pulsed electromagnetic field device and low frequency ultrasound device are also employed for limb reconstruction. Used for external fractures, these methods may avoid the need for surgery.